By Moselio Schaechter (auth.), Kendric C. Smith (eds.)
The covalent attachment to deoxyribonucleic acid in vivo of a giant variety of forms of chemicals (both common mobile components reminiscent of proteins and amino acids, and in addition exogenous compounds resembling medicines, cancer agents, and so forth. ) were proven to exert profound results upon cells. 4 examine activi ties, previously thought of to be completely self sustaining, relate to this challenge of nucleic acid adducts--(1) common covalent attachment of DNA to membranes, protein linkers in chromosomes, and so on. ; (2) the jobs of radiation and chemical enhancement of DNA adduct formation in mobile killing and mutagenesis. (A similar box is using recognized cross-linking reactions to realize details on structural institutions in macromolecular complexes. ); (3) the relevance of DNA adducts to chemical and radiation carcinogenesis; (4) the rele vance of DNA adducts to the cross-linking thought of mobile getting older. (1) there are lots of examples of standard linkages among DNA and protein, e. g. , DNA-membrane attachment websites, protein linkers in chromosomes, amino acids covalently associated with DNA as a functionality of development stipulations, and gene rules via non-covalently certain proteins. A precis of knowledge on usual adducts to DNA hence serves to introduce the topic of the radiation and chemical enhancement of DNA adduct formation. (2) some time past, radiation biology has been involved commonly with attempting to comprehend the radiation chemistry of purified DNA, and the organic results and service of those radiation-induced adjustments while produced in mobile DNA.
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Additional info for Aging, Carcinogenesis, and Radiation Biology: The Role of Nucleic Acid Addition Reactions
056 * DNA was isolated by a modified p-aminosalicylate-phenol method (Kirby, 1957, 1959). The modification consisted primarily of extra deproteinizing steps before and after incubation with ribonuclease. ~ 1963). Unpublished data of Salser and Balis. guanine and ribose showed the peptides are attached to the sugar. The sugar peptide attachment is somewhat labile. Thus it is possible by analogy that the peptides that were released from the DNA on the formation of apurinic may have been produced by hydrolysis of a 3 1 or 5• bond.
As tumors are carried through several transplant generations in animals of the strain of origin the unusual amino acid gradually disappears from their DNA (Table 6). Interestingly, there are often rather sudden changes in the amounts and kinds of amino acids bound in DNA. ~ 1969). If the peptides are functional entities closely bound to the DNA the question naturally arises as to what their function is. Even before evidence for the existence of closely bound amino acids was presented there had been speculation that protein linkers did, in fact, exist and play a role in the structure of the chromosomes.
Dewey for this observation. 2. Rebuttal of Evidence Supporting DNA Discontinuity Can the evidence adduced in support of DNA discontinuity be reasonably explained in other ways? The answer is yes. In the first place, molecules of the size of the 11 Structural 11 subunit, and even the molecules described by Hazier and Taylor (1975), could result from hydrodynamic shearing. However, I do not believe this to be true for 165S molecules, because in this laboratory we have also studied single-stranded molecules with sedimentation coefficients as large as 220S under seemingly identical shearing conditions.
Aging, Carcinogenesis, and Radiation Biology: The Role of Nucleic Acid Addition Reactions by Moselio Schaechter (auth.), Kendric C. Smith (eds.)