By Gordon L. Atkins
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Extra resources for An Outline of Energy Metabolism in Man
Conversion of oxaloacetate to malate will reoxidize NADH (from glycolysis) to give + N A D for re-use. The next reaction, malate to pyruvate, reduces + NADP (from free fatty acid synthesis) and provides NADPH. The net result is that hydrogen is transferred from glycolysis to free fatty acid synthesis via the two coenzymes. One NADPH is formed for each acetyl coenzyme A transported out of the mitochondrion. This cycle therefore supplies half the NADPH required for free fatty acid synthesis. The other half is supplied by the pentose phosphate pathway (hexose monophosphate shunt).
Brain, however, during starvation can obtain one third of its energy from amino acid catabolism. 65 glucose'6-phosphate glucose triose phosphates t phospho oxaloacetote ± malate A enol pyruvate aspartate Fig.
It generally uses free fatty acids and ketone bodies in proportion to their particular concentrations in blood. Glucose is an important fuel only during hyperglycaemia and when the tissue becomes anaerobic. In this latter situation only glucose can be used and the lactate formed must be released because muscle lacks certain enzymes for gluconeogenesis. It is also the major source of amino acids, from protein, during fasting and releases these chiefly as alanine and glutamine. Storage of energy also occurs, mainly as glycogen and with smaller amounts as triacylglycerols.
An Outline of Energy Metabolism in Man by Gordon L. Atkins