By Donald L. Horrocks
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Additional resources for Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting
The types of fluorescence transitions are schematically shown in Fig. 11-9. The fluorescence between S10 -* S00 corresponds to the maximum energy of a photon emitted by this excited molecule. have less energy associated with the emitted photon. 50,) is dissipated as excess kinetic energy of the ground-state molecule's vibrational energy. Thus the total energy is conserved. The fluorescence spectrum will reflect the probability of the transition between S10 and the vibrational levels of the ground state of the molecule.
N. ) '5 g/liter PPO (D. L. Horrocks, J. Chem. Phys. 1 S2 S3 'As predicted by optical approximation model. In a different study on the role of upper excited states in the energy transfer process, it was shown that the scintillation efficiency of solvents could be altered by further increases in the solute concentration beyond the normal "100% energy transfer" concentration (5). The scintillation efficiencies of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, and l,3,4-trimethylbenzene are all equal at very high concentrations of such solutes as 1,1 '-binaphthalene, butyl-PBD, and PPO.
There is a finite probability that any number of photoelectrons will not produce a measurable pulse at the anode. This probability becomes increasingly small as the number of photoelectrons in the pulse increases. Also, since a single photon can produce a photoelectron, there is a finite probability that events which on the average produce insufficient photons to produce a measurable pulse will produce a measurable pulse. As a result of these statistical factors, a part of all events that produce small numbers of photons will fail to be detected, with the final result reflected in a lowering of counting efficiency.
Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting by Donald L. Horrocks