By Philip Howard
A finished and useful consultant to surveying for archaeologists, with transparent directions in archaeological mapping, recording box paintings and specific case reviews from the united kingdom, Europe and the USA.
Philip Howard offers a user’s consultant to tools and tools of surveying to let archaeologists to symbolize their very own fieldwork with a bit of luck and independently. Archaeological Surveying is a useful source which:
* offers beginner’s directions to software program utilized in computerised surveying, together with IntelliCAD 2000, Terrain instruments, Christine GIS and worldwide Mapper
* introduces the archaeologist to more than a few surveying tools equivalent to GPS, digital distance measures, theodolites and magnetic compasses
* contains reasonably cheap software.
This textbook is a necessary learn for any box archaeologists who're short of an advent to surveying, or just desire to replace their techniques.
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Extra info for Archaeological Surveying and Mapping: Recording and Depicting the Landscape
One thing which will usually need to be bought separately is a pair of two-way radios to allow communication between the instrument operator and the person holding the target. Total stations have supplanted very rapidly electronic theodolites for most survey work, as they have far greater functionality and the price differential is not all that wide. ’ Undoubtedly, theodolites will continue to be used for a good many years yet, by those who still have them, and it may be that some venerable mechanical instruments will still be operating when more recent electronic types have fallen prey to Basic methods of surveying 23 developments in technology which mean that spare components are no longer being manufactured.
When measuring to targets through trees, for example, or when lines of sight pass close to the ground surface in the presence of long grass, measured distances may be shorter than they should be, presumably because of reﬂection from the surface of leaves, etc. In these circumstances it would be a good idea to take a number of measurements so as to establish repeatability. The sophistication of these instruments varies considerably, as does price. A simple instrument may cost £500, while Leica and Bosch produce models which incorporate electronic compasses and clinometers (for measuring slope), and have the capability to connect directly to GPS equipment, and these are priced in the region of £3000.
The baseline will itself be drawn to scale on a sheet of drawing ﬁlm which is attached to the board. A sight rule (‘alidade’) is laid along the drawn baseline, then the whole board is rotated so that the alidade points along the baseline to the station at the other end, and the board is clamped in position. A point of detail is then identiﬁed, the alidade is rotated to point towards it (making sure that it still runs through the point marking the location of the table), and a ray is drawn on the ﬁlm, marking the direction of the detail point from the current station.
Archaeological Surveying and Mapping: Recording and Depicting the Landscape by Philip Howard