By Annemarie Surlykke, Paul E. Nachtigall, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)
Two teams of animals, bats and odontocetes (toothed whales), have independently constructed the facility to orient and observe prey by means of biosonar (echolocation). This energetic mechanism of orientation permits those animals to function less than low gentle stipulations. Biosonar is a conceptual evaluation of what's recognized approximately biosonar in bats and odontocetes. Chapters are written by means of bat and odontocetes specialists, leading to collaborations that not just learn info on either animals, but in addition evaluate and distinction mechanisms. This e-book presents a distinct perception that might aid increase our figuring out of biosonar in either animal teams.
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Additional info for Biosonar
10 (a) On-axis recording of a multipulsed (MP) click from a sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), with individual pulses marked. (Adapted from Møhl et al. ) The on-axis recording illustrates how nearly all energy is concentrated in the strong, outgoing P1 pulse. (b) Waveform and (c) time-frequency (Wigner) distribution of the frequency-modulated (FM) search click from a Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris). (Adapted from Johnson et al. 2006) 4°, “with source levels up to 236 dB re: 1 μPa (rms), and with centroid frequencies of 15 kHz”.
The high speed of sound in water compared to air, coupled with slower swimming speeds, means that echolocation signals of toothed whales, including NBHF species, are not narrow enough in bandwidth to be Doppler sensitive (Thorpe et al. 1991). Like most bats, all toothed whales are therefore low duty cycle echolocators. 34 B. ) Fenton et al. Fig. 11 A comparison of patterns of call production by high duty cycle and low duty cycle largyngeally echolocating bats. (Adapted from Fenton et al. 2012. 2 Feeding Buzzes One of the most striking convergences in the echolocation of bats and toothed whales involves changes in the production of biosonar signals as echolocating animals search for prey, select individual targets, approach those targets, and finally 2 Sonar Signals of Bats and Toothed Whales 35 Fig.
The diversification of 40 B. ) Fenton et al. echolocation has radically expanded opportunities for finding and catching prey under very challenging conditions, and allowed toothed whales and bats to diversify in amazing ways. Some species such as porpoises find prey near the bottom where they have to find small prey items between other sound reflecting objects normally termed clutter. In contrast, some deep diving species find prey in mid-water depths with little clutter other than echoes from other organisms.
Biosonar by Annemarie Surlykke, Paul E. Nachtigall, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)